تحلیل و تبیین جایگاه مدل طراحی آموزش واقع‌گرا در میان رویکردهای عمده به طراحی آموزشی و چگونگی کاربرد آن در عمل

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز،ایران

2 دانشیار تکنولوژی آموزشی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز،ایران

10.22054/jti.2020.1291.1033

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر به تبیین جایگاه مدل طراحی آموزش واقع‌گرا در میان رویکردهای عمده به طراحی آموزشی و چگونگی کاربرد آن در عمل پرداخته است. روش پژوهش در این مطالعه، روش تحلیل محتوای کیفی به‎شیوه استقرایی بوده که با مطالعه منابع تخصصی مرتبط در حوزه آموزش واقع‌گرا، اطلاعات لازم جهت پاسخ‌گویی به سوالات پژوهش فراهم گردید. یافته‌های این پژوهش حاکی از آن است که مدل طراحی آموزش واقع‌گرا به دلیل تاثیرپذیری از دیدگاه‌های یادگیری موقعیتی، استاد- شاگردی، و یادگیری مشارکتی؛ بخشی از اهداف سازنده‌گرایی در آموزش و پرورش را تحقق می‌بخشد و بنابراین، این مدل در دسته مدل‌های طراحی آموزشی براساس رویکرد سازنده‌گرایی قرار می‌گیرد. آموزش واقع‌گرا علی‌رغم مشابهت با یادگیری مبتنی بر مساله؛ درنوع و نقش مساله، فرایند حل مساله، چگونگی جمع‌آوری داده و ابزارهای مورد استفاده با آن تفاوت دارد. این مدل؛ با تلفیق اصول یادگیری موقعیتی و زمینه کلان از طریق تکنولوژی ویدئوی تعاملی در محیط‌ یادگیری مبتنی بر مساله، تفکر و تعقل یادگیرندگان را ارتقاء می‌دهد. با گنجاندن مسایل قیاسی و مسایل گسترش‌یافته در آموزش، یادگیرندگان را قادر می‌سازد که ضمن کشف مفاهیم اصلی درس به انتقال یادگیری نیز دست یابند. مدل طراحی آموزش واقع‌گرا با اتکا به اصول سازنده‌گرایانه که در این مطالعه معرفی می‌شود، می‎تواند راهنمای عمل مناسبی برای طراحان آموزشی و معلمان باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis and Explanation of the position of anchoring instructional design model in among the major approaches to instructional design and how to apply it in practice

نویسندگان [English]

  • kiumars taghipour 1
  • hossein dehganzadeh 1
  • daryosh norozi 2
1 student
چکیده [English]

The present study was designed to clarify the status of a anchoring model of the main approaches to instructional design and how to apply it in practice. Methods In this study, qualitative content analysis: inductive approach to the study of specialized information in a anchoring instruction, relevant data to answer the research questions were provided. approach is constructive. Despite similarities, anchoring instruction with problem-based learning, in the kind of problem solving process, the tools used to collect data is together different. The anchored instruction approach is an attempt to help students become more actively engaged in learning by situating or anchoring instruction around an interesting topic. Anchored instruction emphasizes the need to provide students with opportunities to think about and work on problems, which is an emphasis of cognitive constructivists. Anchored instruction also emphasizes group or collaborative problem solving, which is an emphasis of social constructivists. anchoring model based on constructive principles presented in this study, can be a good practice guide for instructional designers and teachers.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • anchoring instruction
  • Instructional design
  • constructivism
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